Blog https://pritzkermilitary.org/ en Meet the PMML Staff - Liz Carr https://pritzkermilitary.org/resources/blog/meet-pmml-staff-liz-carr <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span>Meet the PMML Staff - Liz Carr</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/216" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">oschak</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span>Tue, 06/28/2022 - 11:45</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-display-date--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--datetime.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-blog-display-date"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'time' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> <time datetime="2022-06-29T12:00:00Z">June 29, 2022</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-intro-image--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-intro-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/images/blog/Liz%20Carr%202022%20desk%20headshot.jpg" width="960" height="1280" alt="Liz Carr" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-sections--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-blog-sections"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--text-area--default.html.twig x paragraph--text-area.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig * paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph full-page-width paragraph--type--text-area paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-text-area--text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--text-area.html.twig * field--field-text-area.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-text-area"><p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Have you ever wondered who's behind the scenes making the PMML run smoothly and helping members and guests with all their needs? It’s our pleasure to pull back the curtain and introduce you to the staff you see during your visits and those that work behind the scenes. We're starting this series, by introducing you to Elisabeth (Liz) Carr, the Development Administrative Coordinator. Liz began working at the PMML in March of 2021 and works tirelessly behind the scenes to help members and donors of the PMML.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p>PMML: Hi Liz! Thanks for chatting with us today. As the Development Administrative Coordinator, what is your favorite part of your job and why?</p> <p>Liz: <span><span><span>My favorite part of my job are the various interactions with members. It’s such a simple but wonderful joy to see a familiar face at an event or chat with a recognizable voice on the phone, and I feel lucky that I can be that for members I feel the same way about. We have such a great member base and getting to know them on more personal levels after every interaction makes my day.</span></span></span></p> <p>PMML: <span><span><span>We do have a wonderful membership base, and they in turn are fortunate to have a team as dedicated as the Membership and Development team we have here. Liz, you've been at the PMML for over a year now. What item, program, or story has made a deep impression on you and why?</span></span></span></p> <p>Liz: <span><span><span>There is something special and educational about every event the PMML offers, but our recent events on the conflict between Russia and Ukraine have had the largest impact on me. The PMML is in a position to spread facts shared by experts in their fields, and I appreciate that they have used our reach to inform and educate the public on the war developing in Ukraine. The distribution of knowledge is important, but these events have given me, and I'm sure others, knowledge that we can then put into action.</span></span></span></p> <p>PMML: It's great to know that our programs are so inspiring and thought provoking. On a lighter note, if you weren't working at the PMML, what would you be doing? <img alt="" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="91177204-a1d9-4e67-a7c6-f246d5be5eb1" src="/sites/default/files/IMG_1441.jpg" width="300" class="align-right" height="3764" loading="lazy" /></p> <p>Liz: <span><span><span>If I wasn't working at the PMML, I'd like to assume I wouldn't be working at all and I'd get to spend my days wandering around Chicago and enjoying the city! But I suppose if I wasn't working at the PMML and not working wasn't an option, which it most certainly isn't, I would likely be working at another museum or perhaps pursuing a master's degree in museum studies or cultural anthropology.</span></span></span></p> <p>PMML: There's certainly a lot to explore in Chicago during the summer. As you're exploring the city in the summer, what's your favorite thing to do?</p> <p>Liz: <span><span><span>I love putting on my swimsuit, grabbing a towel and a book, and heading to the beach across the street from my apartment. The fact that I can go for a swim in one of the Great Lakes and relax on a genuine sandy beach only 30 minutes after traveling from the PMML downtown is just a dream come true. Chicago in the summer is unmatched!</span></span></span></p> <p>PMML: It certainly is! Thanks, Liz. It's been great to get to know you!</p></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-comments--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-comments.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-comments.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3599&amp;2=field_comments&amp;3=comment" token="kEOxmiN_wXhhNjv5gZyx7JqQzTbWnWRCouqT7-jbEVI"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> Tue, 28 Jun 2022 16:45:38 +0000 oschak 3599 at https://pritzkermilitary.org A Brief History of PRIDE https://pritzkermilitary.org/resources/blog/brief-history-pride <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span>A Brief History of PRIDE</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/216" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">oschak</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span>Tue, 06/21/2022 - 12:39</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-display-date--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--datetime.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-blog-display-date"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'time' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> <time datetime="2022-06-22T12:00:00Z">June 22, 2022</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-intro-image--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-intro-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/images/blog/pride%20flag.jpg" width="1116" height="744" alt="Pride flag" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-sections--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-blog-sections"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--text-area--default.html.twig x paragraph--text-area.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig * paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph full-page-width paragraph--type--text-area paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-text-area--text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--text-area.html.twig * field--field-text-area.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-text-area"><p><span><span><span><span>Every year in June, the LGBTQ+ community comes together to celebrate Pride month, the community, and its achievements. The month-long celebration has its origins in the early commemorations of the Stonewall Riots which began on June 28, 1969, when the New York City Police raided the Stonewall Inn, a popular gay bar in the Greenwich Village neighborhood. </span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>The raid was supposedly scheduled and conducted because the NYPD had information that the bar was serving liquor without a license, among other violations. At the time, New York’s gay community had grown incredibly weary of the police department targeting gay clubs. That tension led to the crowd throwing bottles at the police not long after they arrived for their raid and things only got worse from there. The protest spilled into the neighboring streets and riots ensued until the deployment of New York’s riot police early the next day. The initial uprising, which led to six days of violent protests, fueled the growth of the gay rights movement. </span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>As gay rights grew in the civilian world, the military was slow to catch up to these societal changes. Before 1982, when the military officially enacted a policy banning gay individuals from the ranks, same-sex relations were criminalized and cause for discharge. Before that, in the early 1940s, it was unfortunately mis-classified as a mental illness.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>In 1993, under President Bill Clinton’s administration, a policy that became to be known as “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” went into effect. This policy prohibited discrimination against those individuals in the LGBTQ+ community who were not open about their sexual preferences, while barring military service from those individuals from the LGBTQ+ community who were open about it. This policy was enforced until 2011 when it was repealed by Congress, allowing openly gay and bisexual individuals to serve.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>The United States’ military started to see an increase in LGBTQ+ representation around 2015. A real barrier was broken when Secretary of Defense Ash Carter announced that the Military Equal Opportunity policy had been modified to include gay service members. This officially extended spousal and family benefits to same-sex partners in the military! The following year, the Senate confirmed Eric Fanning as secretary of the Army, making him the first openly gay secretary of a U.S. military branch. </span></span></span></span></p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'filter_caption' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <figure role="group" class="align-right"> <img alt="credit: Defense Visual Information Distribution Services" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="c1a3952c-70e1-400b-a578-99cda8b058a9" src="/sites/default/files/6709529.jpg" width="300" height="4399" loading="lazy" /> <figcaption>Credit: DVIDS</figcaption> </figure> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/filter/templates/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <p><span><span><span><span>Gay rights have evolved dramatically over the last century and the last few years have brought a lot of change to the world, encouraging focus on diversity and civil rights issues. Given the military’s 247-year history, their policy to accept the LGBTQ+ community is still relatively new and like all shifts, takes time. Despite the shifts and policy changes, the mission for full equality in the military is still incomplete. While Gay and transgender military service members enjoy far more rights than they did even just 10 years ago, the fight to increase acceptance for this continuously marginalized group continues. </span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><strong><span><span><span><span>Building upon previous blog posts and collections of the subject, this year the librarians have chosen new additions to highlight for your attention.</span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><span><span><span><span>To learn more about the Stonewall Riot, read David Carter’s </span><a href="https://www.pritzkermilitary.org/explore/library/online-catalog/view/oclc/54079526"><em><span>Stonewall: the Riots that Sparked the Gay Revolution</span></em></a><em><span>.</span></em></span></span></span></p> <p><strong><span><span><span><span>Recently added titles include:</span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><span><span><span><span>Eleveld, Kerry. <a href="https://pmml.axis360.baker-taylor.com/Title?itemId=0017490727"><em>Don't Tell Me to Wait: How the Fight for Gay Rights Changed America and Transformed Obama's Presidency</em>.</a> New York, NY: Basic Books, 2015. </span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>Faderman, Lillian. <a href="https://pmml.axis360.baker-taylor.com/Title?itemId=0017576905"><em>The Gay Revolution: The Story of the Struggle</em>.</a> New York: Simon &amp; Schuster, 2015. </span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>Findlay, Jean. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/oclc/892456505"><em>Chasing Lost Time: The Life of C.K. Scott Moncrieff: Soldier, Spy, and Translator</em>.</a> First American ed. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2015.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>Oclon, Kim. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/oclc/1285277322"><em>The War on All Fronts.</em></a> Deerfield, IL: Trism Books, 2022.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>Shinkle, Peter. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/oclc/1028835683"><em>Ike's Mystery Man: The Secret Lives of Robert Cutler</em>.</a> First ed. Hanover, New Hampshire: Steerforth Press, 2018.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>Witt, Margaret, and Tim Connor. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/oclc/974912711"><em>Tell: Love, Defiance, and the Military Trial at the Tipping Point for Gay Rights</em>.</a> Lebanon, NH: ForeEdge, an imprint of University Press of New England, 2017.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>And see <a href="https://www.pritzkermilitary.org/resources/blog/pride-month-2021">last year’s Pride Month blog post</a>.</span></span></span></span></p></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-comments--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-comments.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-comments.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3598&amp;2=field_comments&amp;3=comment" token="CEdwPXsdgNvtZHygTQOaP1s5BghqOANX72ks04i4fr8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> Tue, 21 Jun 2022 17:39:42 +0000 oschak 3598 at https://pritzkermilitary.org Who is Uncle Sam? https://pritzkermilitary.org/resources/blog/who-uncle-sam <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span>Who is Uncle Sam?</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/216" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">oschak</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span>Thu, 06/09/2022 - 12:40</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-display-date--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--datetime.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-blog-display-date"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'time' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> <time datetime="2022-06-17T12:00:00Z">June 17, 2022</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-intro-image--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-intro-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/images/blog/pied%20piper.jpeg" width="730" height="1000" alt="Pied Piper Join the US School Garden Army" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-sections--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-blog-sections"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--text-area--default.html.twig x paragraph--text-area.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig * paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph full-page-width paragraph--type--text-area paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-text-area--text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--text-area.html.twig * field--field-text-area.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-text-area"><p><span><span><span><span><span><span>As we approach the 4<sup>th</sup> of July, we wanted to spend some time delving into the history of Uncle Sam. Uncle Sam is a personification of the United States’ federal government that has been used in political cartoons since the War of 1812. Legend has it that Uncle Sam’s early likeness was based on a man named Sam Wilson, who was a meat packer from Troy, New York. Wilson supposedly had a contract to supply canned meat products to the United States government and one of the requirements of that contract was that the initials of the producers be stamped on the tins. Elbert Anderson, Sam Wilson’s business partner’s initials were stamped on the tins, which were followed by “- U.S.” While the “U.S.” stamped on each tin stood for United States, the markings became attributed to Sam Wilson.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>This fun theory unfortunately falls apart as the earliest evidence of the use of Uncle Sam imagery predates Sam Wilson’s government contract. The initial image of Uncle Sam appeared in an 1812 issue of the <em>Bennington News-letter</em> from Vermont.  Nonetheless, Sam Wilson’s link to Uncle Sam remains as the origin story having been repeated often over the years. The </span></span></span><a href="https://www.troyny.gov/community/attractions/uncle-sam-bike-trail/"><span><span><span>city of Troy</span></span></span></a><span><span><span>, New York has embraced the legend and even has a seven-mile <a href="https://www.troyny.gov/community/attractions/uncle-sam-bike-trail/" target="_blank">bike trail</a> named after him.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>It’s interesting to note that depictions of Uncle Sam have grown and evolved over the years, similar to this nation’s growth. The nineteenth century political cartoons of Thomas Nast featured Uncle Sam and were known for portraying Uncle Sam as a young, rural rube in comparison to his contemporaries. James Montgomery Flagg includes depictions of him in American recruiting material and other posters for WWI that differ from Nast’s depiction. </span></span></span></span></span></span><img alt="" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="658f4b4a-f376-4007-afcf-7f0a965b6c8c" src="/sites/default/files/I%20want%20You.jpeg" width="250" class="align-right" height="768" loading="lazy" /></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>A strong difference is noted in the famous “I Want You” poster, in which Flagg has a strong Uncle Sam addressing the viewer directly. This depiction has undoubtedly contributed to the more favorable image of Uncle Sam over the years. Then, Uncle Sam was seen as a commanding leader of a rising nation. This symbolism was carried over into the music of World War I and World War II with Uncle Sam being worked into the sheet music scores’ pictorial covers and referenced in rousing lyrics. Uncle Sam is featured in songs like Robert P. Hall and Ida K. Mervine’s <em>Uncle Sam and His Battering Ram: The Victory Song</em> (1918) and Joe Burke and James E. Dempsey’s <em><span><span>If I Had a Son for Each Star in Old Glory, <span>Uncle</span> <span>Sam</span>, I'd Give Them All to You! </span></span></em><span><span>(1917).</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Today, Uncle Sam remains an iconic image that’s inextricably linked to our wonderful country. His face and stature are still frequently used by political cartoonists in their commentaries of world events and affairs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>To learn more, check out:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/oclc/79860860" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Dewey, Donald. <em>The Art of Ill Will: The Story of American Political Cartoons</em>. New York: New York University Press, 2007.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a></p> <p><a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/oclc/1530887" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Foreign Policy Association, and Foreign Policy Association. <em>A Cartoon History of United States Foreign Policy, 1776-1976</em>. New York: Morrow, 1975.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a></p> <p><a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/oclc/785863941" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Halloran, Fiona Deans, and Frank and Virginia Williams Collection of Lincolniana (Mississippi State University. Libraries). <em>Thomas Nast: The Father of Modern Political Cartoons</em>. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a></p> <p><a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/oclc/2213311" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Horwitz, Elinor Lander. <em>The Bird, the Banner, and Uncle Sam: Images of America in Folk and Popular Art</em>. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1976.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a></p> <p><a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/oclc/755705038" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Katz, Harry L, and Vincent Virga. <em>Civil War Sketch Book: Drawings from the Battlefront</em>. 1st ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2012.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a></p> <p><a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/oclc/70129530" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Mouraux, Cecile, Jean-Pierre Mouraux, and Uncle Sam Original Poster Museum. <em>Who Was "Uncle Sam”: Illustrated Story of the Life of Our National Symbol</em>. Sonoma, CA: Poster Collector, 2006.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a></p> <p><a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/oclc/39116652" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>West, Delno C, Jean M West, Jean M West, Christopher Manson, and Christopher Manson. <em>Uncle Sam and Old Glory: Symbols of America</em>. First ed. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers, 2000.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a></p></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-comments--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-comments.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-comments.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3590&amp;2=field_comments&amp;3=comment" token="jqzoEEPFagC1-xuJYI_H_8HrRRVP-VJhKfPDh2AJjFg"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> Thu, 09 Jun 2022 17:40:20 +0000 oschak 3590 at https://pritzkermilitary.org In Honor of D-Day https://pritzkermilitary.org/resources/blog/honor-d-day <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span>In Honor of D-Day</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/216" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">oschak</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span>Fri, 06/03/2022 - 12:09</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-display-date--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--datetime.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-blog-display-date"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'time' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> <time datetime="2022-06-06T12:00:00Z">June 6, 2022</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-intro-image--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-intro-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/images/blog/print%20d-day.jpeg" width="750" height="527" alt="D-Day" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-tags--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-tags.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-tags.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-blog-tags"><a href="/blog/world-war-ii" hreflang="en">World War II</a></div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-sections--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-blog-sections"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--text-area--default.html.twig x paragraph--text-area.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig * paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph full-page-width paragraph--type--text-area paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-text-area--text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--text-area.html.twig * field--field-text-area.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-text-area"><p><span><span>D-Day — June 6, 1944 — witnessed the largest seaborne invasion in military history. Allied soldiers representing Britain, Canada, the United States, and the Free French made a surprise landing on the shores of Northern France. </span></span><span><span>Over 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline ready to fight Nazi Germany as the world waited with anticipation to learn the outcome. </span></span></p> <p><span><span>General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which “we will accept nothing less than full victory.” Operation Overlord — and Operation Neptune as the amphibious assault was codenamed — proved to be a vital turning point in World War II as Allied forces pushed the Germans off the Atlantic coast and began the march to Germany. By the end of the day, nearly 175,000 Allied soldiers had either parachuted into France or landed on one of five beaches along the Normandy coast. More than 5,000 ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion. Costs were also high. More than 9,000 Allied Soldiers were killed or wounded; however more than 100,000 Soldiers began the march across Europe to defeat Hitler. </span></span><img alt="" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="06054a4f-126a-4f88-a4ae-5a083827c33a" src="/sites/default/files/D-Day%20Normandy.jpeg" width="250" class="align-right" height="585" loading="lazy" /></p> <p><span><span>Through days and days of bitter fighting, Operation Overlord ultimately succeeded in its objective to drive the Wehrmacht — the German armed forces — out of France. However, the story of D-Day goes well beyond the events of that single day in history. D-Day proved to be the beginning of the final phase of the war in Europe. Our past exhibition, D-Day +75, highlights a small piece of this great story as we remember the battle seventy-eight years later.</span></span></p> <p><span><span>Additional Resources about D-Day:</span></span></p> <p><a href="/explore/museum/past-exhibits/d-day-75"><span><span>D-Day +75</span></span></a></p> <p><a href="https://www.pritzkermilitary.org/whats_on/pritzker-military-presents/david-abrutat-vanguard-true-stories-reconnaissance-and-intelligence-missions-behind-d-day"><span><span>David Abrutat, Vanguard: The True Stories of the Reconnaissance and Intelligence Missions behind D-Day</span></span></a></p> <p><span><span><a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/880429401?queryString=%E2%80%A2%09Atkinson%2C%20Rick.%20The%20Guns%20at%20Last%20Light%3A%20The%20War%20in%20Western%20Europe%2C%20&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false">The Guns at Last Light: The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945.</a> </span></span></p> <p><a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/318411577?queryString=D-Day%3A%20The%20Battle%20for%20Normandy&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false">D-Day: The Battle for Normandy.</a></p> <p><a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/13390417?queryString=Crusade%20in%20Europe&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false">Crusade in Europe.</a></p> <p><a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/30364485?queryString=The%20longest%20day&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false">The Longest Day: June 6, 1944.</a></p> <p>For a bibliography of works on D-Day, please reach out to the librarians at <a href="mailto:reference@pritzkermilitary.org">reference@pritzkermilitary.org</a>. </p></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-comments--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-comments.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-comments.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3588&amp;2=field_comments&amp;3=comment" token="zmBthLf6gGJenuJK4jdzW9HkkacVd5OaVt2l1nZLlMA"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> Fri, 03 Jun 2022 17:09:05 +0000 oschak 3588 at https://pritzkermilitary.org Memorial Day https://pritzkermilitary.org/MemorialDay <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span>Memorial Day </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Guest (not verified)</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span>Wed, 05/26/2021 - 14:59</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-display-date--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--datetime.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-blog-display-date"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'time' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> <time datetime="2022-05-26T12:00:00Z">May 26, 2022</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-intro-image--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-intro-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/images/blog/memorialday.jpg" width="1200" height="1107" alt="flag" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-sections--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-blog-sections"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--text-area--default.html.twig x paragraph--text-area.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig * paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph full-page-width paragraph--type--text-area paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-text-area--text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--text-area.html.twig * field--field-text-area.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-text-area"><p>As we honor Memorial Day, we are especially grateful that so many veterans and their families know it is our mission to preserve the stories of our Citizen Soldiers. Today, and all days, we commemorate their service and sacrifice.</p> <p><span><span><span><strong><span><span><span>Memorial Day History</span></span></span></strong></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>Memorial Day, formerly Decoration Day, is celebrated on the fourth Monday in May honoring those who died </span></span></span></span>while serving in the U.S. Armed Forces<span><span><span><span>. It originated in the years following the Civil War and became an official federal holiday in 1971. Today, communities across the nation hold ceremonies to remember, honor, and commemorate the service and sacrifice of the fallen, a tradition which continues from 150 years ago to today.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>Learn more about the history of Memorial Day and about commemorating <a href="https://www.army.mil/goldstar/">Gold Star Families</a> by viewing the videos below. </span></span></span></span>Gold Star families are the immediate family members of service members who died in the line of duty. They are the spouses, parents, children, and siblings of fallen heroes. </p></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> </div> <div class="field-blog-sections"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--text-area--default.html.twig x paragraph--text-area.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig * paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph full-page-width paragraph--type--text-area paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-text-area--text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--text-area.html.twig * field--field-text-area.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-text-area"><iframe width="800" height="500" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/VEXZeOPOHVU" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen=""></iframe></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> </div> <div class="field-blog-sections"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--text-area--default.html.twig x paragraph--text-area.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig * paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph full-page-width paragraph--type--text-area paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-text-area--text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--text-area.html.twig * field--field-text-area.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-text-area"><iframe width="800" height="500" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/8mYesq9wbjI" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen=""></iframe></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> </div> <div class="field-blog-sections"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--text-area--default.html.twig x paragraph--text-area.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig * paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph full-page-width paragraph--type--text-area paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-text-area--text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--text-area.html.twig * field--field-text-area.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-text-area"><h2><span><span><strong><span><span><span><span>We hope you will visit the Pritzker Military Museum &amp; Library during this weekend to learn more about our Citizen Soldiers</span></span></span></span></strong></span></span></h2> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Visiting and supporting the Museum &amp; Library is a great way to remember and learn what service members' contributions have been to our country. The Museum &amp; Library is offering FREE ADMISSION on Saturday, May 28 , 10-4pm, in honor of Memorial Day. View our newest exhibit, <a href="https://www.pritzkermilitary.org/exhibits-and-events/life-behind-wire-prisoners-war"><em>Life Behind the Wire: Prisoners of War</em></a>, a</span></span></span></span></span></span> riveting look at never-before-seen collections from prisoners of war exposing the struggles, challenges, and triumphs of life in captivity</p> <p>We're also offering <a href="https://pmmlshop.org/collections/books">30% off all books,</a> both online and in person, through the entire holiday weekend. </p> <p> </p> <h2><span><span><span><span>Below are some ways you can get involved in your local communities:</span></span></span></span></h2> <p><span><span><span><strong><span><span><span><span>Commemorate Their Service </span></span></span></span></strong></span></span></span></p> <p>Honor and remember those in your life who served in the military with a <a href="https://www.pritzkermilitary.org/shop/donate/commemorate-their-service-gift">Commemorate Their Service™</a> memorial or honorial.</p> <p>For a memorial or honorial donation of $75 or greater, a dedicated entry for your service member will be created on the <a href="https://www.pritzkermilitary.org/explore/commemorate-their-service/">Commemorate Their Service Wall of Honor</a>. Your entry will include a photo of your service member that you provide, a brief history of their life and service written by you, links to related materials in the Museum &amp; Library's collections, and a dedicated book in the Museum &amp; Library's circulating collection that will include your service member's name, dates of service and branch of the military.  </p> <p><span><span><span><strong><span><span><span><span>Take Part In A Memorial Day Tradition</span></span></span></span></strong></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Although this year, in light of the pandemic, there may be different guidelines for attending parades and public ceremonies, it can be a great way to show the importance of remembering. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ul> <li><span><span><a href="https://www.chicago.gov/city/en/depts/dca/supp_info/memorial_day_parade.html"><strong><span><span><span><span>Memorial Day Wreath Laying Ceremony &amp; Parade</span></span></span></span></strong></a><br /> <span><span><span><span>Saturday May 28, 11:00am</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ul> <p><span><span><span><strong><span><span><span><span>Moment of Remembrance</span></span></span></span></strong></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Set a reminder for 3 p.m. local time so you can take part in the National Moment of Remembrance. This observation, which formally began in the year 2000, calls Americans to voluntarily and informally take a moment of silence at 3 p.m. and reflect in their own way.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><strong><span><span><span><span>Wear A Red Poppy</span></span></span></span></strong></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>On September 27, 1920, the American Legion designated the poppy as a way to memorialize the soldiers who fought and died during the war, and began a national program to distribute the flowers in 1924. National Poppy Day is honored the Friday before Memorial Day. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Commemorating those in your lives that have served is a beautiful and meaningful way to remember. <a href="https://pmmlshop.org/products/poppy-pin">We offer red poppy pins in the Museum &amp; Library's Gift Shop to support this show of support</a>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><strong><span><span><span><span>Decorate A Grave with Flowers</span></span></span></span></strong></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>In the U.S., there are 134 national cemeteries as well as dozens of state cemeteries where veterans and soldiers are buried. Many of these cemeteries have veterans and soldiers from wars that took place long in the past. Although these cemeteries are well-maintained, many of the older graves haven't seen decoration in years. Get your family together and "adopt" an older grave by laying flowers or a wreath around it. Visiting a veteran's cemetery also provides a great opportunity to give your kids a history lesson about past wars.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><strong><span><span><span><span>Honor the Dead By Supporting Living Veterans</span></span></span></span></strong></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Although Memorial Day is when we honor the fallen, you don't have to wait until Veterans Day in November to show your support of living veterans. Many veterans are in need of assistance, whether it's help accessing healthcare or simply the need for companionship. There are countless ways to reach out and make a difference for veterans on Memorial Day. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-comments--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-comments.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-comments.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> Wed, 26 May 2021 19:59:34 +0000 Guest 3411 at https://pritzkermilitary.org The 100th Infantry Regiment and 442nd Regimental Combat Team https://pritzkermilitary.org/resources/blog/100th-infantry-regiment-and-442nd-regimental-combat-team <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span>The 100th Infantry Regiment and 442nd Regimental Combat Team</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/216" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">oschak</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span>Tue, 04/26/2022 - 09:54</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-display-date--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--datetime.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-blog-display-date"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'time' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> <time datetime="2022-05-05T12:00:00Z">May 5, 2022</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-intro-image--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-intro-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/images/blog/Nuseu%20GIs.jpeg" width="750" height="597" alt="Nisei GIs" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-sections--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-blog-sections"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--text-area--default.html.twig x paragraph--text-area.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig * paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph full-page-width paragraph--type--text-area paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-text-area--text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--text-area.html.twig * field--field-text-area.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-text-area"><p><span><span><span><span>May commemorates Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month in the United States.  Many Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have served in the United States’ military throughout the years. The 100<sup>th</sup> Infantry Regiment and the 442<sup>nd</sup> Regimental Combat Team, which consisted of second-generation Japanese Americans (commonly referred to as Nisei) during World War II, is a shining example of the extremely honorable and self-less service many Asian Americans have made to their country.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>The units served in the European theatre of operations from 1944 through 1946, seeing combat in Italy, southern France, and Germany. While these young men were fighting for their country in Europe, some of their relatives were held in internment camps in the continental United States due to their heritage. The highly decorated unit earned eight Distinguished Unit Citations during the war with five of those citations being earned for actions that occurred in Vosges, France in a single month. </span></span></span></span></p> <p><img alt="US Army Signal Corps, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="e8496354-0f97-41b3-b067-218f3f4b6233" src="/sites/default/files/442nd_RCT_memorial_ceremony_in_France_1944.jpeg" width="250" class="align-right" height="356" loading="lazy" /></p> <p><span><span><span><span>In March 1945, the 100<sup>th</sup>/442<sup>nd</sup> was attached to the 92<sup>nd</sup> Division on the Italian Front.  They encountered extremely difficult terrain as they traversed the <span><span>Apennine Mountains.<strong> </strong></span></span>The units broke the Gothic Line that the German Army had constructed and reinforced under the direction of German <span><span>Field Marshal </span></span><span><span>Albert Kesselring. The 100<sup>th</sup> and 442<sup>nd</sup> pushed hard against the German line. They assaulted the German Army in Aulla, Italy in April 1945. When Aulla fell, the German retreat was cut off and German soldiers surrendered to the American 5<sup>th</sup> and 8<sup>th</sup>Armies. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>Many Asian Americans were targets of discrimination after the war. These veterans however persevered. Many of them used the G.I. bill to attend college and, later, gave back to their local communities through public service as doctors, educators, and politicians.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>In October 2010, Congress granted the Congressional Gold Medal to the <span><span>442nd Regimental Combat Team, the 100th Infantry Battalion, and Nisei soldiers serving in the Military Intelligence Service. The presentation ceremony occurred on November 2, 2011. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><strong><span><span><span><span>Listen to one of their stories:</span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><a href="https://www.pritzkermilitary.org/whats_on/holt-oral-history-program/enoch-kanaya" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span><span><span>Enoch Kanaya, Sergeant</span></span></span></span></span></span></a></p> <p><a href="https://www.pritzkermilitary.org/whats_on/holt-oral-history-program/satsuki-fred-tanakatsubo-private" target="_blank"><span><span><span><span><span><span>Satsuki "Fred" Tanakatsubo, Private</span></span></span></span></span></span></a></p> <p><strong><span><span><span><span>To learn more about the 442<sup>nd</sup> Regimental Combat Team, read:</span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Ankrum, Homer R. <em>Dogfaces Who Smiled through Tears: The 34th Red Bull Infantry Division, and Attached 100th (Hawaiian) Battalion, and 442nd "Go for Broke" Regimental Combat Team in World War II: A Chronicle of Heartbreaks, Hardships, Heroics, and Humor of the North African and Italian Campaigns</em>. Lake Mills, Iowa: Graphic Pub, 1987.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Brown, Daniel James. <em>Facing the Mountain: A True Story of Japanese American Heroes in World War II</em>. New York, New York: Viking, an imprint of Penguin Random House LLC, 2021.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Chang, Thelma. <em>I Can Never Forget: Men of the 100th/442nd</em>. Honolulu, HI: Sigi Productions, 1991.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Crost, Lyn. <em>Honor by Fire: Japanese Americans at War in Europe and the Pacific</em>. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1994.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Duus, Masayo. <em>Unlikely Liberators: The Men of the 100th and 442nd</em>. Paperback ed. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2006.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Hanamura, Wendy, Joan Saffa, and National Japanese American Historical Society (U.S.). <em>Honor Bound: A Personal Journey: The Story of the 100th/442nd Regimental Combat Team - 50 Years Later: Teacher's Classroom Guide</em>. Edited by Chizu Iiyama and Rosalyn Tonai. San Francisco, CA: National Japanese American Historical Society, 1995.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Hayashi, Stacey T, and Damon Wong. <em>Journey of Heroes: The Story of the 100th Infantry Battalion and 442nd Regimental Combat Team</em>. Hawaii: 442nd Manga Comic Project, 2012.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Hosokawa, Bill. <em>Nisei: The Quiet Americans</em>. New York: William Morrow, 1969.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Matsuo, Dorothy. <em>Boyhood to War: History and Anecdotes of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team</em>. Honolulu: Mutual Pub, 1992.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>McGaugh, Scott. <em>Honor Before Glory: The Epic World War II Story of the Japanese American Gis Who Rescued the Lost Battalion</em>. Boston, MA: Da Capo Press, 2016.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Moulin, Pierre. <em>U.S Samuraïs in Bruyeres: People of France and Japanese Americans: Incredible Story</em>. France: Peace &amp; Freedom Trail, 1993.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Tateishi, John, John Tateishi, and Mazal Holocaust Collection. <em>And Justice for All: An Oral History of the Japanese American Detention Camps</em>. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 1984.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Tendai Education Foundation, and Hawaii Nikkei History Editorial Board. <em>Japanese Eyes, American Heart: Personal Reflections of Hawaii's World War II Nisei Soldiers</em>. Honolulu: Tendai Educational Foundation, 1998.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Westdale, Virgil W, and Stephanie A Gerdes. <em>Blue Skies and Thunder: Farm Boy, Pilot, Inventor, TSA Officer, and World War II Soldier of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team: Memoir of a Japanese American</em>. New York: iUniverse, 2009.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>Yenne, Bill. <em>Rising Sons: The Japanese American GIs Who Fought for the United States in World War II</em>. 1st ed. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2007.</span></span></span></span></span></p></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-comments--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-comments.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-comments.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3570&amp;2=field_comments&amp;3=comment" token="zOG4H825jUBC7td5XU5XcuJd-dd8p3u9Fqro78Nh0hM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> Tue, 26 Apr 2022 14:54:47 +0000 oschak 3570 at https://pritzkermilitary.org Follow-up Q&A for the “Assessing the Ukrainian War” Panel https://pritzkermilitary.org/resources/blog/follow-qa-assessing-ukrainian-war-panel <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span>Follow-up Q&amp;A for the “Assessing the Ukrainian War” Panel</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/216" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">oschak</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span>Thu, 04/21/2022 - 15:38</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-display-date--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--datetime.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-blog-display-date"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'time' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> <time datetime="2022-04-27T12:00:00Z">April 27, 2022</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-intro-image--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-intro-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/images/blog/0C9A8847.jpg" width="400" height="267" alt="panel" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-sections--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-blog-sections"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--text-area--default.html.twig x paragraph--text-area.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig * paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph full-page-width paragraph--type--text-area paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-text-area--text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--text-area.html.twig * field--field-text-area.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-text-area"><p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>On April 13, the Pritzker Military Museum &amp; Library hosted the panel “Assessing the Ukrainian War.”  Chief Military Historian Dr. Matthew S. Muehlbauer moderated with panel with LTC (ret.) Alexander S. Vindman, Amb. (ret.) Ian Kelly, and Professor Dick Farkas.  Our panelists have graciously answered some the questions they did not have time to address during the program, and their responses appear below.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><strong><span><span><span><span><span>What are your thoughts on Russia using chemical warfare against Ukraine?</span></span></span></span></span><span><span>  </span></span></strong></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>Prof. Farkas</strong>: </span></span></span><span><span>I do think it is a possibility if the urban resistance continues to be effective for the Ukrainians.  I think it is unlikely that it will go undetected since the Russians have in the past been quite clumsy with such weapons.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>Amb. Kelly</strong>: </span></span></span><span><span><span>I'm afraid it is quite possible that Putin's forces could deploy some type of chemical weapons in urban areas where it is finding it hard to dislodge Ukrainian troops. Those areas include Mariupol, where already there are reports that they may have used non-lethal gas. I've seen media reports of Russians discussing using crowd-control chemical agents to "smoke out" troops in basements in the besieged city.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>LTC Vindman</strong>: </span></span></span><span><span>At the moment, the U.S. has employed a policy of strategic ambiguity in relation to any potential use of Russian chemical weapons. This has raised the bar for a U.S. response, and the Kremlin has been forced to take this unknown variable into account. Nevertheless, as Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy and countless other government officials and analysts have warned, a Russian chemical weapons attack is still a distinct possibility. There have already been unconfirmed reports of chemical weapons usage in places like Mariupol and Izyum. If or when these reports are confirmed, the U.S. will be forced to act. Any failure to take drastic measures in response will only invite further escalation, more chemical weapons attacks, and continued abrogation of treaties and agreements governing the production and use of chemical weapons. </span></span></span></span></p> <p><strong><span><span><span><span><span>What about the reports that Russian soldiers were ordered to rape and kill women in Ukraine?</span></span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>Prof. Farkas</strong>: </span></span></span><span><span>I think that is very unlikely.  Armies have engaged in such abuses but my best sense is that when it happens it is very localized and brought on by excessive drinking. </span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>Amb. Kelly</strong>: </span></span></span><span><span><span>There's no doubt Russian troops have committed such crimes in occupied areas. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe has already issued a report of an investigation documenting Russian "<a href="https://www.osce.org/odihr/515868" target="_blank">crimes against humanity</a>"</span></span></span><span><span><span>. I can't say whether they were ordered to do so by their leaders. I can say though that those leaders enabled an environment for such crimes by calling Ukrainians 'Nazis' and other dehumanizing names.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>LTC Vindman</strong>: </span></span></span><span><span>Truth be told, I don’t know. This sort of intentionality is difficult to prove. However, the Russian military is a poorly disciplined force, and Russian military personnel have historically acted this way. Moreover, the Russian government and its various media proxies have created the conditions necessary to instigate and facilitate the rape and slaughter of Ukrainian women. The continued demonization and dehumanization of Ukrainians in the Russian mass media cannot be discounted. There are also some people who believe this is a fundamental component of the Russian way of war, and they maintain that it is almost certain that Russian leadership condoned these war crimes, if they did not outright deliver these orders. For instance, Vladimir Putin just chose to honor the 64th Motorized Brigade, upgrading its name to the 64th Guard Motorized Bridge. The Ukrainian Ministry of Defense has indicated that these were the same Russian military personnel who committed atrocities in Bucha.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><strong><span><span><span><span><span>Why was everyone so wrong about Russian military capabilities?</span></span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>Prof. Farkas</strong>: </span></span></span><span><span>I don’t think everyone was wrong.  The problem we often have with such assessments is our reliance on journalists and our impatience for the “bottom line.”  Both tend to cloud the picture.  Scholars familiar with the Russian military reality are aware that the Russian system has many limitations including but not limited to the one I mentioned in the program:  the inability to keep pace with technology and it application and the absence of training to deal with insurgency.  Wholesale destruction is the Russian default tactic when other tactics fail.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>LTC Vindman</strong>:</span></span></span><span><span> Not everyone was wrong, but for many analysts, they could only evaluate the Russian military and make predictions based on what the military looked like on paper. If you only analyzed the Russian military through data, spreadsheets, and written reports of their military doctrine, then it appeared superficially that Russia had a massive quantitative and qualitative (albeit to a lesser extent) advantage over the Ukrainian military. Of course, these calculations on paper proved worthless once the tanks began rolling and the ineffectiveness of Russian military leadership came to the fore. Since then, I think even the most seasoned professionals have been surprised by the fact that the Russian military has consistently failed at some of the most basic tasks in any military campaign.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><strong><span><span><span><span><span>Are there tensions between factions of Eastern/Russian Orthodox Christian churches?</span></span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>Prof. Farkas</strong>: </span></span></span><span><span>There have always been deep frictions between the Ukrainian Orthodox church and the Russian Orthodox church. The stories abound. One conflict over where to bury the Russian Orthodox prelate became embroiled in controversy given Kyiv is a high holy place for Russian Orthodoxy that the church official was buried beneath the sidewalk in Kyiv.  </span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>LTC Vindman</strong>:</span></span></span><span><span> Yes. These tensions extend further into the past than I can explain here, but one of the most important issues in recent memory was the Orthodox schism in 2018. At that time, the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian Orthodox Church) unilaterally chose to break Eucharistic communion (i.e. broke ties) with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople because of the latter’s decision to grant autocephaly (essentially ecclesiastical self-rule) to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. Since the most recent offensive campaign began in February, divisions have only deepened, including within Russia itself, as parishioners, priests, and full branches of the Russian Orthodox Church have moved to condemn the war. Meanwhile, others continue to function as extensions of the Russian government in much the same way as Patriarch Krill, who has offered his full-throated support for Vladimir Putin and the “Russian World” project. </span></span></span></span></p> <p><strong><span><span><span><span><span>What impact will the war have on agricultural production, and its effect on world markets?</span></span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>Prof. Farkas</strong>: </span></span></span><span><span>Production will be severely impacted. My guess would be by 40%. Exports (that earn foreign currency) will also decline sharply since Ukrainian ports will not be functioning in any normal way.  The ability of the Ukrainian government to monitor and manage what is produced will be limited to Western Ukraine.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>LTC Vindman</strong>:</span></span></span><span><span> Ukraine is a major exporter of crops like corn and wheat as well as sunflower seeds and sunflower seed oil. Because of the war, Ukraine will likely be unable to bring in a harvest comparable to last year’s, and Ukrainian farmers and companies will have difficulty with exporting their current harvest. The war will probably cause an adjustment in the mix of crops that will be planted and harvested in Ukraine as well. All of this will lead to shortfalls in production and potential shortages abroad. Russia is also a major exporter of crops like wheat as well as fertilizer. New sanctions and retaliatory export bans have created additional gaps for products that would typically be sourced from Russia. Farmers have already expressed concerns about the price and availability of fertilizer worldwide. Global markets are being negatively impacted accordingly. One should expect that food prices will continue to rise around the world, and there is particular vulnerability in some food insecure regions in places like the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia, which rely on Ukrainian and/or Russia agricultural exports. </span></span></span></span></p> <p><strong><span><span><span><span><span>Is Putin a dictator?</span></span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>Prof. Farkas</strong>: </span></span></span><span><span>This question while important does not lend itself to a clear, precise and useful answer.  Scholars and policy-makers need to recognize that the distinctions (variables) that speak to an answer are numerous and are not “yes” or “no” factors.  We need to think about this as a scale (left to right in a classic sense) and one that changes constantly.  Putin since 2000 has not demonstrated that he is singularly interested in wielding exclusive power.  He has studied and accommodated a range of other political actors in Russian society.  In essence, I am saying that the record from 2000 to 2012 with a few exceptions was to broaden the players in Russian politics.  This doesn’t make it a democracy but it also does not make it a dictatorship.  From 2012 on, a shift in his trajectory toward greater control and a narrower support base became clear.  The people closest to him tend to be understood as Russian politics as moderates in the political context there.  The Ukraine events of 2022 suggest a remarkable and significant return to what are classic authoritarian means of controlling society.  He has concentrated his power, reduced input from other segments of Russian society, and made no effort to veil his impulse to wield vast power in both domestic and international affairs.  </span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><strong>LTC Vindman</strong>: </span></span></span><span><span>Yes.</span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-comments--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-comments.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-comments.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3569&amp;2=field_comments&amp;3=comment" token="t22Mx8hzVpRdv6hlfwquDjR1lpcw6TbONa-rYIJPFeo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> Thu, 21 Apr 2022 20:38:27 +0000 oschak 3569 at https://pritzkermilitary.org War Poetry https://pritzkermilitary.org/resources/blog/war-poetry <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span>War Poetry</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/216" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">oschak</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span>Tue, 04/05/2022 - 15:10</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-display-date--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--datetime.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-blog-display-date"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'time' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> <time datetime="2022-04-13T12:00:00Z">April 13, 2022</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-intro-image--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-intro-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/images/blog/John_McCrae_in_uniform_circa_1914.jpg" width="540" height="766" alt="John McCrae" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-sections--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-blog-sections"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--text-area--default.html.twig x paragraph--text-area.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig * paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph full-page-width paragraph--type--text-area paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-text-area--text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--text-area.html.twig * field--field-text-area.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-text-area"><p><span><span><span><span><span><span>April is <a href="https://poets.org/national-poetry-month " target="_blank">National Poetry Month</a></span></span></span><span><span><span>. To commemorate the lyrical words of the soldier-poets of past conflicts, the Library Staff would like to share with our readers of this blog a post on war poetry, particularly that of World War I (1914-1918).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Much of history has been recorded in rhyme and measure, from the iambic pentameter of William Shakespeare’s history plays to the free verse of the more recent conflicts of the 20<sup>th</sup> and 21<sup>st</sup> centuries like Brian Turner’s depictions of the War in Iraq in <em>Here, Bullet </em>(<span><span>Farmington, Maine: Alice James Books, 2005) – available for reading from the Museum &amp; Library.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>World War I, like other conflicts, deeply affected the soldier-writers who recorded their experiences on the front lines. But as Paul Fussell observes in his <em>The Great War and Modern Memory</em> (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975)<em>,</em> British soldiers were much more educated and literate than in previous conflicts (as were those in the armies of other belligerents). Moreover, that education included study and practice with English literary forms that emphasized romantic heroism and pastoral themes. These were the forms that British soldiers tried to use to describe their experiences with trench warfare, and Fussell argues that the resulting poetry, memoirs, and other types of writing they produced helped create our modern sense of irony.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>One of the most notable war poems is <em>In Flanders Fields</em>, written by Canadian <span><span>Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae (November 30, 1872 – January 28, 1918) who died of pneumonia while in command of the No. 3 Canadian General Hospital in Boulogne-su-Mer in northern France. His poem is in the public domain and has become heavily associated with World War I as has the red poppy flower that he mentions therein.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><strong><span><span><span>In Flanders Fields</span></span></span></strong></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>By John McCrae</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>In Flanders fields the poppies blow</span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br /> <span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Between the crosses, row on row,</span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br /> <span><span><span><span><span><span><span>    That mark our place; and in the sky</span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br /> <span><span><span><span><span><span><span>    The larks, still bravely singing, fly</span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br /> <span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Scarce heard amid the guns below.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>We are the Dead. Short days ago</span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br /> <span><span><span><span><span><span><span>We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,</span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br /> <span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Loved and were loved, and now we lie,</span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br /> <span><span><span><span><span><span><span>    In Flanders fields.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span><span><span><span><span> </span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Take up our quarrel with the foe:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br /> <span><span><span><span><span><span><span>To you from failing hands we throw</span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br /> <span><span><span><span><span><span><span>    The torch; be yours to hold it high.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br /> <span><span><span><span><span><span><span>    If ye break faith with us who die</span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br /> <span><span><span><span><span><span><span>We shall not sleep, though poppies grow</span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br /> <span><span><span><span><span><span><span>    In Flanders fields.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>After McCrae’s death, his poems were published with an essay by Sir Andrew Macphail, who also served during the war in Canada’s medical services as a member of the 6<sup>th</sup> Field Ambulance, <em>In Flanders Fields: And Other Poems</em> (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1920).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>John Phillips Sousa, an American composer and conductor known for his military marches who served in World War I as the Lieutenant Commander of the Naval Reserve Band in Illinois, set <em>In Flanders Field</em> to music and it was issued as a score in 1918 by the music publishing company<span><span> G. Schirmer Inc</span></span>. of New York. A copy of the sheet music is available for researchers to view in our Rare Book Room.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><strong><span><span><span><span><span><span>Circulating volumes on war poetry available from the Museum &amp; Library include:</span></span></span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Featherstone, Simon. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/30360716?queryString=war%20poetry&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false" target="_blank"><em>War Poetry: An Introductory Reader</em>.</a> Critical Readers in Theory and Practice. London: Routledge, 1995.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Fussell, Paul. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/1631561?queryString=great%20war%20modern%20memory&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false#availability-section" target="_blank"><em>The Great War and Modern Memory</em>.</a> New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Lehmann, John. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/8559396?queryString=%20First%20World%20War%20soldier-poets%20&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false" target="_blank"><em>The English Poets of the First World War</em>.</a> New York, N.Y.: Thames and Hudson, 1982.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Pearson, Luke, Hunt Emerson, Simon Gane, Sammy Harkham, Kevin Huizenga, Eddie Campbell, Peter Kuper, et al. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/883464361?queryString=%20First%20World%20War%20soldier-poets%20&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false" target="_blank"><em>Above the Dreamless Dead: World War I in Poetry and Comics</em>.</a> Edited by Chris Duffy. First ed. New York: First Second, 2014.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Powell, Anne. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/40246976?queryString=a%20deep%20cry&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false" target="_blank"><em>A Deep Cry: First World War Soldier-Poets Killed in France and Flanders</em>.</a> Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Pub, 1998.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Stallworthy, Jon. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/897025844?queryString=%20First%20World%20War%20soldier-poets%20&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false" target="_blank"><em>Anthem for Doomed Youth: Twelve Soldier Poets of the First World War</em>.</a> London: Constable, 2014.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>Stallworthy, Jon. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/9945887?queryString=war%20poetry&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false" target="_blank"><em>The Oxford Book of War Poetry</em>.</a> Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 1984.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><strong><span><span><span><span><span><span>To learn more about John McCrae, see these volumes available from the Museum &amp; Library:</span></span></span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Granfield, Linda, Janet Wilson, and John McCrae. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/899216836?queryString=john%20mccrae&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false" target="_blank"><em>In Flanders Fields: The Story of the Poem by John McCrae</em>.</a> Markham, ON: Fitzhenry &amp; Whiteside, 2014.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Graves, Dianne. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/39342779?queryString=john%20mccrae&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false" target="_blank"><em>A Crown of Life: The World of John McCrae</em>.</a> Staplehurst: Spellmount, 1997.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><strong><span><span><span><span><span><span>To learn more about John Philip Sousa, see:</span></span></span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Bierley, Paul E. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/984341322?queryString=john%20philip%20sousa&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false&amp;format=Book&amp;subformat=Book%3A%3Abook_printbook&amp;changedFacet=format " target="_blank"><em>John Philip Sousa: American Phenomenon</em>.</a> Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Sousa, John Philip. <a href="https://pritzkermilitarylibrary.on.worldcat.org/search/detail/3307636?queryString=john%20philip%20sousa&amp;clusterResults=true&amp;groupVariantRecords=false&amp;format=Book&amp;subformat=Book%3A%3Abook_printbook&amp;changedFacet=format" target="_blank"><em>Marching along: Recollections of Men, Women and Music</em>.</a> Popular ed. Boston: Hale, Cushman &amp; Flint, 1941.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-comments--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-comments.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-comments.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3564&amp;2=field_comments&amp;3=comment" token="_uatTfrcNHR0MXgzDsrgQtm66MXTTtQ7bmJ5oA57OJs"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> Tue, 05 Apr 2022 20:10:22 +0000 oschak 3564 at https://pritzkermilitary.org A Perspective from a Military Child https://pritzkermilitary.org/resources/blog/perspective-military-child <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span>A Perspective from a Military Child</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/216" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">oschak</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span>Mon, 03/28/2022 - 13:40</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-display-date--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--datetime.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-blog-display-date"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'time' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> <time datetime="2022-04-04T12:00:00Z">April 4, 2022</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-intro-image--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-intro-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/images/blog/Ashlynne_resize.jpg" width="400" height="342" alt="Ashlynne Deason" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-sections--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-blog-sections"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--text-area--default.html.twig x paragraph--text-area.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig * paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph full-page-width paragraph--type--text-area paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-text-area--text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--text-area.html.twig * field--field-text-area.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-text-area"><p>April is designated as the Month of the Military Child, recognized as a time to honor the sacrifices made by military families, especially children. Sponsored and supported by a number of organizations, the Month of the Military Child holds an emphasis on the experience of the dependent children of military members currently serving. In recognition of this month-long celebration, we partnered with Kids Rank, a service-based organization whose mission is to empower military children. Ashlynne Deason, one of the children involved with Kids Rank, shares a little about herself and the inspiring relationship she has with her military father. </p> <p><span><span><strong><em><span>Ashlynne Deason is a 12-year-old child of an active-duty Navy service member. She aspires to be a Naval JAG Officer and go into politics to make a difference in the world.</span></em></strong></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>Hi! I'm Ashlynne Deason, and I’m a 12-year-old military child. My dad is Chief Petty Officer Shawn Deason (Navy), and he has been serving our country for 14 years. He has served at a bunch of commands including USS Leyte Gulf, CJTF-HOA, Fourth Fleet, and Recruit Training Command. He has deployed or been stationed without us five times. This means he’s been stationed all over the place! He even lived in Africa for a year. We are preparing for another move soon, which will be our eighth move as a family.</span></span></span></span><img alt="" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="ae2af2ca-ea6e-4ce4-ba36-cbd515150742" src="/sites/default/files/Ashlynne%20and%20Dad.jpg" width="250" class="align-right" height="3264" loading="lazy" /></p> <p><span><span><span><span>My Dad and I have a special relationship. We kind of just “get” one-another. Our family and friends see our bond and often make references to how much we are alike. I love just being around him. Sometimes we sit and watch old 90s music videos on YouTube, and he tells me about “back in his day.” We do a lot of puzzles together and I try my best to beat him at board games. My Dad has taught me a wide range of things from self-discipline, planning, and even when it’s okay to be a little bit goofy. He is my biggest cheerleader, even when he can’t physically be present. Recently, I thought about quitting my martial arts programming. My Dad and I had a conversation and I recognized that I should stick with what I started. I mean, he didn’t raise a quitter after all. As a result, I stuck with it and found a passion! I began to excel and committed myself to the program. I am on track to become a Deputy Black-Belt before we execute a permanent change of station (move). My Dad taught me to be dedicated. I am very fortunate to have a dad who is dedicated to his service, but he prioritizes our needs first and foremost.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><img alt="" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="ff1554cd-11a4-439a-a9aa-f9ba7652e3cb" src="/sites/default/files/Reelistment.jpg" width="250" class="align-left" height="960" loading="lazy" /><span><span><span><span>I take pride when people thank him for his service, but I can’t help but feel a little misunderstood when folks overlook the sacrifice of the military family. When my dad deploys, we deploy. Mom is left to pick up the slack and I take on more responsibilities too. I will always appreciate and be grateful when people say “thanks for your service” but I often wonder if they know what the term “service” really means to the military family. My dad once deployed for 15 months! Just the thought of 15 months can be overwhelming. Luckily for us, we bond through adversity. My dad is our rock and in times of stress he really calms the situation and finds a solution. We are a tough family. We prepare, we talk, and we know that this is our lifestyle, and we wouldn’t have it any other way.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span>I'll always look up to my dad. He reminds my brother and I that we are his investment and that we are his gift to the world. I can’t wait to see what the future holds. I plan to use my strength and resilience as a military kid and take on the world’s biggest issues! We’ve been afforded a great opportunity to serve as a military family and I’ll never take that for granted. I plan to make the most of my unique experiences.</span></span></span></span></p></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-comments--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-comments.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-comments.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3562&amp;2=field_comments&amp;3=comment" token="5At4mX7W9TRZMiTWDFhsKCWP0lDzMzoFBV2k5NSnZC8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> Mon, 28 Mar 2022 18:40:48 +0000 oschak 3562 at https://pritzkermilitary.org Women in the Military https://pritzkermilitary.org/resources/blog/women-military <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--blog.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span>Women in the Military</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--blog.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/user/216" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">oschak</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/user/templates/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--blog.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span>Wed, 03/02/2022 - 10:43</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/node/templates/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-display-date--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-display-date.html.twig * field--datetime.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-blog-display-date"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'time' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> <time datetime="2022-03-14T12:00:00Z">March 14, 2022</time> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/time.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-intro-image--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-intro-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-intro-image"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <img src="/sites/default/files/images/blog/Women%20military%5B32%5D.jpeg" width="885" height="516" alt="Women in the military" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/system/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/image/templates/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-blog-sections--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-blog-sections.html.twig * field--entity-reference-revisions.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div> <div class="field-blog-sections"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'paragraph' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * paragraph--text-area--default.html.twig x paragraph--text-area.html.twig * paragraph--default.html.twig * paragraph.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> <div class="paragraph full-page-width paragraph--type--text-area paragraph--view-mode--default"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--paragraph--field-text-area--text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--field-text-area.html.twig * field--paragraph--text-area.html.twig * field--field-text-area.html.twig * field--text-long.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field-text-area"><p><em>This month, the Pritzker Military Museum &amp; Library continues a 3-part blog series addressing issues of inclusion and diversity in America’s armed forces.  Our third author is Dr. Heather Stur, who discusses the role of women and the military.  This is the final post in this guest series.</em></p> <p><span><span>On Christmas Eve, 1964, National Liberation Front guerrillas drove a car loaded with explosives into a parking lot behind the Brinks Hotel Bachelor Officers Quarters in central Saigon, South Vietnam. The blast killed two U.S. servicemen and wounded more than sixty American military personnel and Vietnamese civilians. Among the wounded were four Navy nurses who were injured while caring for U.S. servicemen hurt in the attack. On January 9, 1965, the nurses received Purple Heart awards for their service. We know that male U.S. servicemen earned Purple Hearts in Vietnam, but wounded female nurses aren’t part of the collective American memory of the war. But as the story of the Brinks nurses illustrates, American women did see combat in Vietnam, even in the air-conditioned jungle in Saigon.</span></span></p> <p><span><span>Military necessity has brought women into the forces in various ways, beginning in the American Revolutionary War, when General George Washington requested civilian women to work as nurses in the Continental Army’s medical support teams so that men would be free to serve in battle as needed. During the U.S. Civil War, U.S. Secretary of War Simon Cameron appointed Dorothea Dix Superintendent of Female Nurses of the Union Army in order to create a civilian volunteer nurse corps.<a href="#_edn1" name="_ednref1" id="_ednref1"><sup><sup><span><span>[1]</span></span></sup></sup></a> Congress established the Army Nurse Corps in 1901, but personnel were not considered military and did not receive military benefits. World War II opened up opportunities for women because of the War Department’s need for personnel. </span></span></p> <p><span><span>More than 16 million Americans served in the U.S. armed forces during World War II. In order to free up more men for combat, the armed services created non-combat women’s sections including the Women’s Army Corps (WAC) and the Navy’s Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES). The Women’s Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) was a civilian women’s aviation organization attached to the Army Air Forces founded in 1943 to free up male pilots for combat missions. Although women’s military opportunities remained limited, wartime needs allowed them into spaces that had previously been sealed off to them. Approximately 150,000 women served in the WAC in World War II, along with 100,000 WAVES, thirteen thousand in the Coast Guard’s women’s auxiliary, and the Marine Corps’ more than twenty thousand women reserves.<a href="#_edn2" name="_ednref2" id="_ednref2"><sup><sup><span><span>[2]</span></span></sup></sup></a></span></span></p> <p><span><span>In 1948, the same year that the racial integration of the military occurred, President Harry Truman signed into law the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act. The law made women permanent members of the armed forces, subject to military authority and entitled to veterans’ benefits such as the G.I. Bill. However, women would only be allowed to serve in gender-segregated auxiliaries like the Women’s Army Corps and could not exceed two percent of any branch’s total membership.<a href="#_edn3" name="_ednref3" id="_ednref3"><sup><sup><span><span>[3]</span></span></sup></sup></a> </span></span></p> <p><span><span>During the Korean War, about 700 Army nurses, as well as six WACs and one WAC officer, served in-country with the U.S. military. Approximately 10,000 American women served with the U.S. armed forces in Vietnam. The majority were nurses, mostly from the Army Nurse Corps. Among those who were not nurses, about 700 women were members of the Women’s Army Corps, while much smaller numbers served in the Navy, Air Force, and Marines.<a href="#_edn4" name="_ednref4" id="_ednref4"><sup><sup><span><span>[4]</span></span></sup></sup></a></span></span></p> <p><span><span>The most significant changes for women in the military occurred after the Vietnam War, as the U.S. transitioned to an all-volunteer force. Without the draft, the armed forces launched recruitment campaigns targeting women in order to help fill the ranks. Recruitment brochures promised women access to education, job training, and advancement in a military career. The U.S. military academies began admitting women in 1976, and the Army dissolved the WAC in 1978 and integrated servicewomen into the regular army.<a href="#_edn5" name="_ednref5" id="_ednref5"><sup><sup><span><span>[5]</span></span></sup></sup></a> In the early 1990s, more than 40,000 American women served in the Persian Gulf War, and Congress authorized servicewomen to fly combat missions and serve on combat ships. More than 300,000 American women have served in the 21<sup>st</sup> century wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. At least twelve women have graduated from the Army’s elite Ranger School since the Defense Department opened combat specialties to women in 2016.<a href="#_edn6" name="_ednref6" id="_ednref6"><sup><sup><span><span>[6]</span></span></sup></sup></a></span></span></p> <p><img alt="" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="f7a27599-c6bf-4523-ae4a-5dcf5a75eb7f" src="/sites/default/files/FET.jpeg" width="250" class="align-right" height="400" loading="lazy" /><span><span>The expansion of military opportunities for women were mission critical in the Middle East. Army and Marine Corps female engagement teams (FETs) built relationships with locals and gathered intelligence in Afghanistan, where cultural norms prohibit women from interacting with men who are not family members. FET personnel met Afghan women in their homes, talked with them about their needs, and gathered information about their communities. Although not classified as combat positions, FETs were attached to infantry units, underwent combat training, and carried M-4 rifles. </span></span></p> <p><span><span>During the U.S. Civil War, women such as Frances Clayton and Loreta Velazquez disguised themselves as men in order to serve in both Union and Confederate army units. In 2008, U.S. Army General Ann Dunwoody became the first American woman to earn the four-star rank. Over time, personnel needs from filling the ranks in World War II to meeting cultural expectations in Afghanistan have forced U.S. military leaders to make pragmatic decisions that opened more roles to women. Yet acceptance of women as soldiers has not come easy, and opposition to their presence in the military has sometimes turned violent. As more woman rise up the ranks of the armed services, their visibility will normalize the idea that soldiers are women as well as men.   </span></span></p> <p><span><span>      </span></span></p> <p><span><span>Heather Marie Stur, Ph.D. is the Moorman Distinguished Alumni Professor of the Humanities at the University of Southern Mississippi. She is also co-director of USM’s Dale Center for the Study of War &amp; Society. Stur is the author of numerous books and articles including, most recently, <em>Saigon at War: South Vietnam and the Global Sixties</em> (Cambridge 2020). She is currently writing a book about General Buford Blount and the 3<sup>rd</sup> Infantry Division in Operation Iraqi Freedom.</span></span></p> <p> </p> <hr /> <p><span><span><a href="#_ednref1" name="_edn1" id="_edn1"><span><span><span><span><span>[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span> Stanley B. Burns, “Nursing in the Civil War,” PBS.org, 2018, <a href="http://www.pbs.org/mercy-street/uncover-history/behind-lens/nursing-civil-war/">http://www.pbs.org/mercy-street/uncover-history/behind-lens/nursing-civ…</a></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><a href="#_ednref2" name="_edn2" id="_edn2"><span><span><span><span>[2]</span></span></span></span></a> D’Ann Campbell, “Women in Uniform: The World War II Experiment,” <em>Military Affairs</em>, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fiftieth Year—1937-1987 (Jul. 1987), p. 137.</span></span></p> <p><span><span><a href="#_ednref3" name="_edn3" id="_edn3"><span><span><span><span>[3]</span></span></span></span></a> Bettie J. Morden, <em>The Women’s Army Corps, 1945-1978 </em>(Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989), 48.</span></span></p> <p><span><span><a href="#_ednref4" name="_edn4" id="_edn4"><span><span><span><span>[4]</span></span></span></span></a> Another 500 women served in the Air Force during the Vietnam War, but most of them were stationed in the Pacific and other parts of Southeast Asia, not in Vietnam.  Fewer than 30 women Marines served in Vietnam.  In addition to nurses, nine women Navy officers served tours of duty in Vietnam.  See Kathryn Marshall, <em>In the Combat Zone: An Oral History of American Women in Vietnam</em> (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1987), 4; Ron Steinman, <em>Women in Vietnam</em> (New York: TV Books, 2000), 18-20; Susan H. Godson, <em>Serving Proudly: A History of Women in the U.S. Navy</em> (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2001), 213; Col. Mary V. Stremlow, <em>A History of the Women Marines, 1946-1977</em> (Washington, DC: History and Museums Division Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1986), 87.</span></span></p> <p><span><span><a href="#_ednref5" name="_edn5" id="_edn5"><span><span><span><span>[5]</span></span></span></span></a> Heather Marie Stur, <em>Beyond Combat: Women and Gender in the Vietnam War Era</em> (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011); Beth Bailey, <em>America’s Army: Making the All-Volunteer Force </em>(Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2010).</span></span></p> <p><span><span><a href="#_ednref6" name="_edn6" id="_edn6"><span><span><span><span>[6]</span></span></span></span></a> Gayle Tzemach Lemmon, “Women in combat? They’ve already been serving on the front lines, with heroism,” <em>Los Angeles Times, </em>Dec. 4, 2015. <a href="http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-1204-lemmon-women-combat-20151204-story.html">http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-1204-lemmon-women-combat-201…</a></span></span></p></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/paragraph/paragraph--text-area.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/custom/pritzker_military/templates/field/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-comments--blog.html.twig * field--node--field-comments.html.twig * field--node--blog.html.twig * field--field-comments.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section> <h2>Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3542&amp;2=field_comments&amp;3=comment" token="9rkot6tEZn9anv3DxiNrn3GIxiZg_v016tydk4-jODk"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/modules/comment/templates/field--comment.html.twig' --> Wed, 02 Mar 2022 16:43:19 +0000 oschak 3542 at https://pritzkermilitary.org